- NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
a) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
b) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
c) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
- For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
- PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Hard gelatin capsule.
- CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Nilotinib is indicated for the treatment of:
– adult and paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in the chronic phase,
– paediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in chronic phase with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Therapy should be initiated by a physician experienced in the diagnosis and the treatment of patients with CML.
Treatment should be continued as long as clinical benefit is observed or until unacceptable toxicity occurs.
If a dose is missed the patient should not take an additional dose, but take the usual prescribed next dose.
Posology for Philadelphia chromosome positive CML adult patients
The recommended dose is 300 mg twice daily.
For a dose of 400 mg once daily (see dose adjustments below), 200 mg hard capsules are available.
Posology for P hiladelphia chromosome positive CML paediatric patients
Dosing in paediatric patients is individualised and is based on body surface area (mg/m2). The recommended dose of nilotinib is 230 mg/m2?twice daily, rounded to the nearest 50 mg dose (to a maximum single dose of 400 mg) (see Table 1). Different strengths of Nilotinib hard capsules can be combined to attain the desired dose.
There is no experience with treatment of paediatric patients below 2 years of age. There are no data in newly diagnosed paediatric patients below 10 years of age and limited data in imatinib-resistant or intolerant paediatric patients below 6 years of age.
Table 1 Paediatric dosing scheme of nilotinib 230 mg/m2?twice daily
|Body Surface Area (BSA)||Dose in mg
|Up to 0.32 m2||50 mg|
|0.33 ? 0.54 m2||100 mg|
|0.55 ? 0.76 m2||150 mg|
|0.77 ? 0.97 m2||200 mg|
|0.98 ? 1.19 m2||250 mg|
|1.20 ? 1.41 m2||300 mg|
|1.42 ? 1.63 m2||350 mg|
|?1.64 m2||400 mg|
Adult Philadelphia chromosome positive CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib as first-line therapy and who achieved a sustained deep molecular response (MR4.5)
Discontinuation of treatment may be considered in eligible adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib at 300 mg twice daily for a minimum of 3 years if a deep molecular response is sustained for a minimum of one year immediately prior to discontinuation of therapy. Discontinuation of nilotinib therapy should be initiated by a physician experienced in the treatment of patients with CML (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).
Eligible patients who discontinue nilotinib therapy must have their BCR-ABL transcript levels and complete blood count with differential monitored monthly for one year, then every 6 weeks for the second year, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels must be performed with a quantitative diagnostic test validated to measure molecular response levels on the International Scale (IS) with a sensitivity of at least MR4.5 (BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.0032% IS).
For patients who lose MR4 (MR4=BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.01%IS) but not MMR (MMR=BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.1%IS) during the treatment-free phase, BCR-ABL transcript levels should be monitored every 2 weeks until BCR-ABL levels return to a range between MR4 and MR4.5. Patients who maintain BCR-ABL levels between MMR and MR4 for a minimum of 4 consecutive measurements can return to the original monitoring schedule.
Patients who lose MMR must re-initiate treatment within 4 weeks of when loss of remission is known to have occurred. Nilotinib therapy should be re-initiated at 300 mg twice daily or at a reduced dose level of 400 mg once daily if the patient had a dose reduction prior to discontinuation of therapy. Patients who re-initiate nilotinib therapy should have their BCR-ABL transcript levels monitored monthly until MMR is re-established and every 12 weeks thereafter (see section 4.4).
Dose adjustments or modifications
Nilotinib may need to be temporarily withheld and/or dose reduced for haematological toxicities (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) that are not related to the underlying leukaemia (see Table 2).
Table 2 Dose adjustments for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia
|Adult patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML at 300 mg twice daily||ANC* <1.0 x 109/l and/or platelet counts <50 x 109/l||1. Treatment with nilotinib must be interrupted and blood count monitored.
2. Treatment must be resumed within 2 weeks at prior dose if ANC >1.0 x 109/l and/or platelets >50 x 109/l.
3. If blood counts remain low, a dose reduction to 400 mg once daily may be required.
|Paediatric patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML at 230 mg/m2?twice daily
imatinib-resistant or intolerant CML in chronic phase at 230 mg/m2?twice daily
|ANC* <1.0 x 109/l and/or platelet counts <50 x 109/l||1. Treatment with nilotininb must be interrupted and blood count monitored.
2. Treatment must be resumed within 2 weeks at prior dose if ANC >1.5 x 109/l and/or platelets >75 x 109/l.
3. If blood counts remain low, a dose reduction to 230 mg/m2?once daily may be required.
4. If event occurs after dose reduction, consider discontinuing treatment.
*ANC = absolute neutrophil count
If clinically significant moderate or severe non-haematological toxicity develops, dosing should be interrupted, and patients should be monitored and treated accordingly. If the prior dose was 300 mg twice daily in adult patients or 230 mg/m2?twice daily in paediatric patients, dosing may be resumed at 400 mg once daily in adult patients and at 230 mg/m2?once daily in paediatric patients once the toxicity has resolved. If the prior dose was 400 mg once daily in adult patients or 230 mg/m2?once daily in paediatric patients, treatment should be discontinued. If clinically appropriate, re-escalation of the dose to 300 mg twice daily in adult patients or to 230 mg/m2?twice daily in paediatric patients should be considered.
Elevated serum lipase: For Grade 3-4 serum lipase elevations, doses in adult patients should be reduced to 400 mg once daily or interrupted. In paediatric patients, treatment must be interrupted until the event returns to Grade ?1. Thereafter, if the prior dose was 230 mg/m2?twice daily, treatment can be resumed at 230 mg/m2?once daily. If the prior dose was 230 mg/m2?once daily, treatment should be discontinued. Serum lipase levels should be tested monthly or as clinically indicated (see section 4.4).
Elevated bilirubin and hepatic transaminases: For Grade 3-4 bilirubin and hepatic transaminase elevations in adult patients, doses should be reduced to 400 mg once daily or interrupted. For Grade ?2 bilirubin elevations or Grade ?3 hepatic transaminase elevations in paediatric patients, treatment must be interrupted until the levels return to Grade ?1. Thereafter, if the prior dose was 230 mg/m2?twice daily, treatment can be resumed at 230 mg/m2?once daily. If the prior dose was 230 mg/m2?once daily, and recovery to Grade ?1 takes longer than 28 days, treatment should be discontinued. Bilirubin and hepatic transaminases levels should be tested monthly or as clinically indicated.
Approximately 12% of subjects in the clinical study were 65 years of age or over. No major differences were observed for safety and efficacy in patients ?65 years of age as compared to adults aged 18 to 65 years.
Clinical studies have not been performed in patients with impaired renal function.
Since nilotinib and its metabolites are not renally excreted, a decrease in total body clearance is not anticipated in patients with renal impairment.
Hepatic impairment has a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib. Dose adjustment is not considered necessary in patients with hepatic impairment. However, patients with hepatic impairment should be treated with caution (see section 4.4).
In clinical studies, patients with uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease (e.g., recent myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina or clinically significant bradycardia) were excluded. Caution should be exercised in patients with relevant cardiac disorders (see section 4.4).
Increases in total serum cholesterol levels have been reported with nilotinib therapy (see section 4.4). Lipid profiles should be determined prior to initiating nilotinib therapy, assessed at month 3 and 6 after initiating therapy and at least yearly during chronic therapy.
Increases in blood glucose levels have been reported with nilotinib therapy (see section 4.4). Blood glucose levels should be assessed prior to initiating nilotinib therapy and monitored during treatment.
The safety and efficacy of Nilotinib in paediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in chronic phase from 2 to less than 18 years of age have been established (see sections 4.8, 5.1 and 5.2). There is no experience in paediatric patients below 2 years of age or in paediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in accelerated phase or blast crisis. There are no data in newly diagnosed paediatric patients below 10 years of age and limited data in imatinib-resistant or intolerant paediatric patients below 6 years of age.
Method of administration
Nilotinib should be taken twice daily approximately 12 hours apart and must not be taken with food. The hard capsules should be swallowed whole with water. No food should be consumed for 2 hours before the dose is taken and for at least one hour after.
For patients who are unable to swallow hard capsules, the content of each hard capsule may be dispersed in one teaspoon of apple sauce (pur?ed apple) and should be taken immediately. Not more than one teaspoon of apple sauce and no food other than apple sauce must be used (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Treatment with nilotinib is associated with (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3-4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and anaemia. Complete blood counts should be performed every two weeks for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. Myelosuppression was generally reversible and usually managed by withholding Nilotinib temporarily or dose reduction (see section 4.2).
Nilotinib has been shown to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarisation as measured by the QT interval on the surface ECG in a concentration-dependent manner in adult and paediatric patients.
In the Phase III study in patients with newly diagnosed CML in chronic phase receiving 300 mg nilotinib twice daily, the change from baseline in mean time-averaged QTcF interval at steady state was 6 msec. No patient had a QTcF >480 msec. No episodes of torsade de pointes were observed.
In a healthy volunteer study with exposures that were comparable to the exposures observed in patients, the time-averaged mean placebo-subtracted QTcF change from baseline was 7 msec (CI ? 4 msec). No subject had a QTcF >450 msec. Additionally, no clinically relevant arrhythmias were observed during the conduct of the trial. In particular, no episodes of torsade de pointes (transient or sustained) were observed.
Significant prolongation of the QT interval may occur when nilotinib is inappropriately taken with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and/or medicinal products with a known potential to prolong the QT interval, and/or food (see section 4.5). The presence of hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia may further enhance this effect. Prolongation of the QT interval may expose patients to the risk of fatal outcome.
Nilotinib should be used with caution in patients who have or who are at significant risk of developing prolongation of QTc, such as those:
– with congenital long QT prolongation
– with uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease including recent myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina or clinically significant bradycardia.
– taking anti-arrhythmic medicinal products or other substances that lead to QT prolongation.
Close monitoring for an effect on the QTc interval is advisable and a baseline ECG is recommended prior to initiating nilotinib therapy and as clinically indicated. Hypokalaemia or hypomagnesaemia must be corrected prior to Nilotinib administration and should be monitored periodically during therapy.
Uncommon cases (0.1 to 1%) of sudden deaths have been reported in patients with imatinib-resistant or intolerant CML in chronic phase or accelerated phase with a past medical history of cardiac disease or significant cardiac risk factors. Co-morbidities in addition to the underlying malignancy were also frequently present as were concomitant medicinal products. Ventricular repolarisation abnormalities may have been contributory factors. No cases of sudden death were reported in the Phase III study in newly diagnosed patients with CML in chronic phase.
Fluid retention and oedema
Severe forms of drug-related fluid retention such as pleural effusion, pulmonary oedema, and pericardial effusion were uncommonly (0.1 to 1%) observed in a Phase III study of newly diagnosed CML patients. Similar events were observed in post-marketing reports. Unexpected, rapid weight gain should be carefully investigated. If signs of severe fluid retention appear during treatment with nilotinib, the aetiology should be evaluated and patients treated accordingly (see section 4.2 for instructions on managing non-haematological toxicities).
Cardiovascular events were reported in a randomised Phase III study in newly diagnosed CML patients and observed in post-marketing reports. In this clinical study with a median on-therapy time of 60.5 months, Grade 3-4 cardiovascular events included peripheral arterial occlusive disease (1.4% and 1.1% at 300 mg and 400 mg nilotinib twice daily, respectively), ischaemic heart disease (2.2% and 6.1% at 300 mg and 400 mg nilotinib twice daily, respectively) and ischaemic cerebrovascular events (1.1% and 2.2% at 300 mg and 400 mg nilotinib twice daily, respectively). Patients should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if they experience acute signs or symptoms of cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular status of patients should be evaluated and cardiovascular risk factors monitored and actively managed during nilotinib therapy according to standard guidelines. Appropriate therapy should be prescribed to manage cardiovascular risk factors (see section 4.2 for instructions on managing non-haematological toxicities).
Hepatitis B reactivation
Reactivation of hepatitis B in patients who are chronic carriers of this virus has occurred after these patients received BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Some cases resulted in acute hepatic failure or fulminant hepatitis leading to liver transplantation or a fatal outcome.
Patients should be tested for HBV infection before initiating treatment with nilotinib. Experts in liver disease and in the treatment of hepatitis B should be consulted before treatment is initiated in patients with positive hepatitis B serology (including those with active disease) and for patients who test positive for HBV infection during treatment. Carriers of HBV who require treatment with nilotinib should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of active HBV infection throughout therapy and for several months following termination of therapy (see section 4.8).
Special monitoring of adult Ph+ CML patients in chronic phase who have achieved a sustained deep molecular response
Eligibility for discontinuation of treatment
Eligible patients who are confirmed to express the typical BCR-ABL transcripts, e13a2/b2a2 or e14a2/b3a2, can be considered for treatment discontinuation. Patients must have typical BCR-ABL transcripts to allow quantitation of BCR-ABL, evaluation of the depth of molecular response, and determination of a possible loss of molecular remission after discontinuation of treatment with nilotinib.
Monitoring of patients who have discontinued therapy
Frequent monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels in patients eligible for treatment discontinuation must be performed with a quantitative diagnostic test validated to measure molecular response levels with a sensitivity of at least MR4.5 (BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.0032% IS). BCR-ABL transcript levels must be assessed prior to and during treatment discontinuation (see sections 4.2 and 5.1).
Loss of major molecular response (MMR=BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.1%IS) will trigger treatment re-initiation within 4 weeks of when loss of remission is known to have occurred. Molecular relapse can occur during the treatment-free phase, and long-term outcome data are not yet available. It is therefore crucial to perform frequent monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels and complete blood count with differential in order to detect possible loss of remission (see section 4.2). For patients who fail to achieve MMR after three months of treatment re-initiation, BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation testing should be performed.
Laboratory tests and monitoring
In a Phase III study in newly diagnosed CML patients, 1.1% of the patients treated with 400 mg nilotinib twice daily showed a Grade 3-4 elevation in total cholesterol; no Grade 3-4 elevations were however observed in the 300 mg twice daily dose group (see section 4.8). It is recommended that the lipid profiles be determined before initiating treatment with nilotinib, assessed at month 3 and 6 after initiating therapy and at least yearly during chronic therapy (see section 4.2). If a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (a lipid-lowering agent) is required, please refer to section 4.5 before initiating treatment since certain HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are also metabolised by the CYP3A4 pathway.
In a Phase III study in newly diagnosed CML patients, 6.9% and 7.2% of the patients treated with 400 mg nilotinib and 300 mg nilotinib twice daily, respectively, showed a Grade 3-4 elevation in blood glucose. It is recommended that the glucose levels be assessed before initiating treatment with Nilotinib and monitored during treatment, as clinically indicated (see section 4.2). If test results warrant therapy, physicians should follow their local standards of practice and treatment guidelines.
Interactions with other medicinal products
The administration of Nilotinib with agents that are strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (including, but not limited to, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, clarithromycin, telithromycin, ritonavir) should be avoided. Should treatment with any of these agents be required, it is recommended that nilotinib therapy be interrupted if possible (see section 4.5). If transient interruption of treatment is not possible, close monitoring of the individual for prolongation of the QT interval is indicated (see sections 4.2, 4.5 and 5.2).
Concomitant use of nilotinib with medicinal products that are potent inducers of CYP3A4 (e.g., phenytoin, rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and St. John’s Wort) is likely to reduce exposure to nilotinib to a clinically relevant extent. Therefore, in patients receiving nilotinib, co-administration of alternative therapeutic agents with less potential for CYP3A4 induction should be selected (see section 4.5).
The bioavailability of nilotinib is increased by food. Nilotinib must not be taken in conjunction with food (see sections 4.2 and 4.5) and should be taken 2 hours after a meal. No food should be consumed for at least one hour after the dose is taken. Grapefruit juice and other foods that are known to inhibit CYP3A4 should be avoided. For patients who are unable to swallow hard capsules, the content of each hard capsule may be dispersed in one teaspoon of apple sauce and should be taken immediately. Not more than one teaspoon of apple sauce and no food other than apple sauce must be used (see section 5.2).
Hepatic impairment has a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib. Single dose administration of 200 mg of nilotinib resulted in increases in AUC of 35%, 35% and 19% in subjects with mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, compared to a control group of subjects with normal hepatic function. The predicted steady-state Cmax?of nilotinib showed an increase of 29%, 18% and 22%, respectively. Clinical studies have excluded patients with alanine transaminase (ALT) and/or aspartate transaminase (AST) >2.5 (or >5, if related to disease) times the upper limit of the normal range and/or total bilirubin >1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range. Metabolism of nilotinib is mainly hepatic. Patients with hepatic impairment might therefore have increased exposure to nilotinib and should be treated with caution (see section 4.2).
Elevation in serum lipase has been observed. Caution is recommended in patients with previous history of pancreatitis. In case lipase elevations are accompanied by abdominal symptoms, nilotinib therapy should be interrupted and appropriate diagnostic measures considered to exclude pancreatitis.
The bioavailability of nilotinib might be reduced in patients with total gastrectomy (see section 5.2). More frequent follow-up of these patients should be considered.
Tumour lysis syndrome
Due to possible occurrence of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) correction of clinically significant dehydration and treatment of high uric acid levels are recommended prior to initiating nilotinib therapy (see section 4.8).
Nilotinib hard capsules contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Laboratory abnormalities of mild to moderate transient elevations of aminotransferases and total bilirubin have been observed in children at a higher frequency than in adults, indicating a higher risk of hepatotoxicity in the paediatric population (see section 4.8). Liver function (bilirubin and hepatic transaminases levels) should be monitored monthly or as clinically indicated. Elevations of bilirubin and hepatic transaminases should be managed by withholding nilotinib temporarily, dose reduction and/or discontinuation of nilotinib (see section 4.2). The long-term effects of prolonged treatment with nilotinib in paediatric patients are unknown. In a study in the CML paediatric population, growth retardation has been documented in patients treated with nilotinib (see section 4.8). Close monitoring of growth in paediatric patients under nilotinib treatment is recommended.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Nilotinib may be given in combination with haematopoietic growth factors such as erythropoietin or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) if clinically indicated. It may be given with hydroxyurea or anagrelide if clinically indicated.
Nilotinib is mainly metabolised in the liver with CYP3A4 expected to be the main contributor to the oxidative metabolism. Nilotinib is also a substrate for the multi-drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Therefore, absorption and subsequent elimination of systemically absorbed nilotinib may be influenced by substances that affect CYP3A4 and/or P-gp.
Substances that may increase nilotinib serum concentrations
Concomitant administration of nilotinib with imatinib (a substrate and moderator of P-gp and CYP3A4), had a slight inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and/or P-gp. The AUC of imatinib was increased by 18% to 39%, and the AUC of nilotinib was increased by 18% to 40%. These changes are unlikely to be clinically important.
The exposure to nilotinib in healthy subjects was increased 3-fold when co-administered with the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole. Concomitant treatment with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, including ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ritonavir, clarithromycin, and telithromycin, should therefore be avoided (see section 4.4). Increased exposure to nilotinib might also be expected with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Alternative concomitant medicinal products with no or minimal CYP3A4 inhibition should be considered.
Substances that may decrease nilotinib serum concentrations
Rifampicin, a potent CYP3A4 inducer, decreases nilotinib Cmax?by 64% and reduces nilotinib AUC by 80%. Rifampicin and nilotinib should not be used concomitantly.
The concomitant administration of other medicinal products that induce CYP3A4 (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and St. John’s Wort) is likewise likely to reduce exposure to nilotinib to a clinically relevant extent. In patients for whom CYP3A4 inducers are indicated, alternative agents with less enzyme induction potential should be selected.
Nilotinib has pH dependent solubility, with lower solubility at higher pH. In healthy subjects receiving esomeprazole at 40 mg once daily for 5 days, gastric pH was markedly increased, but nilotinib absorption was only decreased modestly (27% decrease in Cmax?and 34% decrease in AUC0-?). Nilotinib may be used concurrently with esomeprazole or other proton pump inhibitors as needed.
In a healthy subjects study, no significant change in nilotinib pharmacokinetics was observed when a single 400 mg dose of nilotinib was administered 10 hours after and 2 hours before famotidine. Therefore, when the concurrent use of a H2 blocker is necessary, it may be administered approximately 10 hours before and approximately 2 hours after the dose of Nilotinib.
In the same study as above, administration of an antacid (aluminium hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide/simethicone) 2 hours before or after a single 400 mg dose of nilotinib also did not alter nilotinib pharmacokinetics. Therefore, if necessary, an antacid may be administered approximately 2 hours before or approximately 2 hours after the dose of Nilotinib.
Substances that may have their systemic concentration altered by nilotinib
In vitro, nilotinib is a relatively strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and UGT1A1, with Ki value being lowest for CYP2C9 (Ki=0.13 microM).
A single-dose drug-drug interaction study in healthy volunteers with 25 mg warfarin, a sensitive CYP2C9 substrate, and 800 mg nilotinib did not result in any changes in warfarin pharmacokinetic parameters or warfarin pharmacodynamics measured as prothrombin time (PT) and international normalised ratio (INR). There are no steady-state data. This study suggests that a clinically meaningful drug-drug interaction between nilotinib and warfarin is less likely up to a dose of 25 mg of warfarin. Due to lack of steady-state data, control of warfarin pharmacodynamic markers (INR or PT) following initiation of nilotinib therapy (at least during the first 2 weeks) is recommended.
In CML patients, nilotinib administered at 400 mg twice daily for 12 days increased the systemic exposure (AUC and Cmax) of oral midazolam (a substrate of CYP3A4) 2.6-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively. Nilotinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. As a result, the systemic exposure of other medicinal products primarily metabolised by CYP3A4 (e.g., certain HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) may be increased when co-administered with nilotinib. Appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary for medicinal products that are CYP3A4 substrates and have a narrow therapeutic index (including but not limited to alfentanil, cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, sirolimus and tacrolimus) when co-administered with nilotinib.
Anti-arrhythmic medicinal products and other substances that may prolong the QT interval
Nilotinib should be used with caution in patients who have or may develop prolongation of the QT interval, including those patients taking anti-arrhythmic medicinal products such as amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine and sotalol or other medicinal products that may lead to QT prolongation such as chloroquine, halofantrine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone and moxifloxacin (see section 4.4).
The absorption and bioavailability of nilotinib are increased if it is taken with food, resulting in a higher serum concentration (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.2). Grapefruit juice and other foods that are known to inhibit CYP3A4 should be avoided.
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Women of childbearing potential/Contraception
Women of childbearing potential have to use highly effective contraception during treatment with nilotinib and for up to two weeks after ending treatment.
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of nilotinib in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). Nilotinib should not be used during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with nilotinib. If it is used during pregnancy, the patient must be informed of the potential risk to the foetus.
If a woman who is being treated with nilotinib is considering pregnancy, treatment discontinuation may be considered based on the eligibility criteria for discontinuing treatment as described in sections 4.2 and 4.4. There is a limited amount of data on pregnancies in patients while attempting treatment-free remission (TFR). If pregnancy is planned during the TFR phase, the patient must be informed of a potential need to re-initiate nilotinib treatment during pregnancy (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).
It is unknown whether nilotinib is excreted in human milk. Available toxicological data in animals have shown excretion of nilotinib in milk (see section 5.3). Since a risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded, women should not breast–feed during Nilotinib treatment and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
Animal studies did not show an effect on fertility in male and female rats (see section 5.3).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Nilotinib has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. However, it is recommended that patients experiencing dizziness, fatigue, visual impairment or other undesirable effects with a potential impact on the ability to drive or use machines safely should refrain from these activities as long as the undesirable effects persist (see section 4.8).
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
The data described below reflect exposure to nilotinib in 279 adult patients from a randomised Phase III study in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase treated with 300 mg of nilotinib twice daily. Safety information from a Nilotinib treatment discontinuation study in CML patients who have been treated with nilotinib as first-line therapy is also provided.
The median duration of exposure was 60.5 months (range 0.1-70.8 months).
The most frequent (?10%) non-haematological adverse reactions were rash, pruritus, headache, nausea, fatigue, alopecia, myalgia and upper abdominal pain. Most of these adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity. Constipation, dry skin, asthenia, muscle spasms, diarrhoea, arthralgia, abdominal pain, vomiting and peripheral oedema were observed less commonly (<10% and ?5%), were of mild to moderate severity, manageable and generally did not require dose reduction.
Treatment-emergent haematological toxicities include myelosuppression: thrombocytopenia (18%), neutropenia (15%) and anaemia (8%). Biochemical adverse drug reactions include alanine aminotransferase increased (24%), hyperbilirubinaemia (16%), aspartate aminotransferase increased (12%), lipase increased (11%), blood bilirubin increased (10%), hyperglycaemia (4%), hypercholesterolaemia (3%) and hypertriglyceridaemia (<1%). Pleural and pericardial effusions, regardless of causality, occurred in 2% and <1% of patients, respectively, receiving nilotinib 300 mg twice daily. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, regardless of causality, was reported in 3% of these patients.
The change from baseline in mean time-averaged QTcF interval at steady state was 6 msec. No patient had an absolute QTcF >500 msec while on the study medicinal product. QTcF increase from baseline exceeding 60 msec was observed in <1% of patients while on the study medicinal product. No sudden deaths or episodes of torsade de pointes (transient or sustained) were observed. No decrease from baseline in mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was observed at any time during treatment. No patient had a LVEF of <45% during treatment nor an absolute reduction in LVEF of more than 15%.
Discontinuation due to adverse drug reactions was observed in 10% of patients.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
The adverse reactions are ranked under heading of frequency using the following convention: very common (?1/10), common (?1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (?1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (?1/10,000 to <1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Most frequently reported adverse reactions in Nilotinib clinical studies
Non-haematological adverse reactions (excluding laboratory abnormalities) that are reported in at least 5% of the adult patients treated with 300 mg of nilotinib twice daily in the randomised Phase III study are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Non-haematological adverse reactions (?5% of all patients)*
|System organ class||Frequency||Adverse reaction||All grades
|Nervous system disorders||Very common||Headache||16||2|
|Gastrointestinal disorders||Very common||Nausea||14||<1|
|Very common||Abdominal pain upper||10||1|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders||Very common||Rash||33||<1|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders||Very common||Myalgia||10||<1|
|Common||Pain in extremity||5||<1|
|General disorders and administration site conditions||Very common||Fatigue||12||0|
*Percentages are rounded to integer for presentation in this table. However, percentages with one decimal precision are used to identify terms with a frequency of at least 5% and to classify terms according to frequency categories.
Adverse reactions that were reported in adult patients in the Nilotinib Phase III study at a frequency of less than 5% are shown in Table 4. For laboratory abnormalities, very common events (?1/10) not included in Table 3 are also reported. These adverse reactions are included based on clinical relevance and ranked in order of decreasing seriousness within each category using the following convention: very common (?1/10), common (?1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (?1/1,000 to <1/100), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Table 4 Adverse reactions in adult patients in the Nilotinib Phase III study (<5% of all patients)
|Infections and infestations|
|Common:||Folliculitis, upper respiratory tract infection (including pharyngitis, nasopharyngitis, rhinitis)|
|Not known:||Herpes virus infection, oral candidiasis, subcutaneous abscess, anal abscess, tinea pedis, hepatitis B reactivation|
|Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps)|
|Not known:||Oral papilloma, paraproteinaemia|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|Common:||Leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphopenia|
|Not known:||Febrile neutropenia|
|Immune system disorders|
|Not known:||Hyperparathyroidism secondary|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Very common:||Hypophosphataemia (including blood phosphorus decreased)|
|Common:||Diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperlipidaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperglycaemia, decreased appetite, hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia|
|Uncommon:||Hyperkalaemia, dyslipidaemia, gout|
|Not known:||Hyperuricaemia, hypoglycaemia, appetite disorder|
|Common:||Insomnia, depression, anxiety|
|Not known:||Amnesia, dysphoria|
|Nervous system disorders|
|Common:||Dizziness, hypoaesthesia, peripheral neuropathy|
|Uncommon:||Ischaemic stroke, cerebral infarction, migraine, paraestheisa|
|Not known:||Cerebrovascular accident, basilar artery stenosis, syncope, tremor, lethargy, dysaesthesia, restless legs syndrome, hyperaesthesia|
|Common:||Eye pruritus, conjunctivitis, dry eye (including xerophthalmia)|
|Uncommon:||Eyelid oedema, photopsia, conjunctival haemorrhage, hyperaemia (scleral, conjunctival, ocular)|
|Not known:||Periorbital oedema, blepharitis, eye pain, chorioretinopathy, conjunctivitis allergic, ocular surface disease, vision blurred|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
(reported in 300 mg twice daily and/or 400 mg twice daily treatment arm of phase III study)
|Common:||Angina pectoris, arrhythmia (including atroventricular block, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, bradycardia), electrocardiogram QT prolonged, palpitations, myocardial infarction|
|Uncommon:||Cardiac failure, cyanosis|
|Not known:||Ejection fraction decrease, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, diastolic dysfunction, left bundle branch block|
|Uncommon:||Intermittent claudication, peripheral arterial occulsive disease, arteriosclerosis|
|Not known:||Haematoma, peripheral artery stenosis|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Not known:||Dyspnoea exertional, pleurisy, epistaxis, oropharyngeal pain|
|Common:||Abdominal distension, abdomnial discomfort, dysgeusia, flatulence|
|Uncommon:||Pancreatitis, gastritis, sensitivity of teeth|
|Not known:||Oesophageal ulcer, gastric ulcer, oesophageal pain, stomatitis, dry mouth, enterocolitis, haemorrhoids, hiatus hernia, rectal haemorrhage, gingivitis|
|Very common:||Hyperbilirubinaemia (including blood bilirubin increased)|
|Common:||Hepatic function abnormal|
|Not known:||Toxic hepatitis|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Common:||Erythema, hyperhidrosis, contusion, acne, dermatitis (including allergic, exfoliative and acneiform), night sweats, eczema|
|Uncommon:||Drug eruption, skin pain|
|Not known:||Erythema multiforme, urticaria, blister, dermal cyst, sebaceous hyperplasia, swelling face, skin atrophy, skin hypertrophy, skin exfoliation, skin hyperpigmentation, skin discolouration, hyperkeratosis, psoriasis|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Common:||Bone pain, back pain, muscular weakness|
|Uncommon:||Musculoskeletal pain, flank pain|
|Renal and urinary disorders|
|Not known:||Dysuria, polliakiuria, chromaturia|
|Reproductive system and breast disorders|
|Not known:||Gynaecomastia, breast induration, menorrhagia, nipple swelling|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Common:||Pyrexia, chest pain (including non-cardiac chest pain), chest discomfort|
|Uncommon:||Pain, chills, feeling body temperature change (including feeling hot, feeling cold), malaise|
|Not known:||Face oedema, localised oedema|
|Very common:||Alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, lipase increased, lipoprotein cholesterol (including low density and high density) increased, total cholesterol increased, blood triglycerides increased|
|Common:||Haemoglobin decreased, blood amylase increased, blood alkaline phosphatase increased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, weight increased, blood insulin increased, globulins decreased|
|Not known:||Blood parathyroid hormone increased, blood insulin decreased, insulin C-peptide decreased, weight decreased|
Clinically relevant or severe abnormalities of routine haematological or biochemistry laboratory values in adult patients are presented in Table 5.
Table 5 Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities*
|– Elevated creatinine||0|
|– Elevated lipase||9|
|– Elevated SGOT (AST)||1|
|– Elevated SGPT (ALT)||4|
|– Elevated bilirubin (total)||4|
|– Elevated glucose||7|
|– Elevated cholesterol (total)||0|
|– Elevated triglycerides||0|
*Percentages with one decimal precision are used and rounded to integer for presentation in this table.
Treatment discontinuation in adult Ph+ CML patients in chronic phase who have achieved a sustained deep molecular response
After discontinuation of nilotinib therapy within the framework of attempting TFR, patients may experience musculoskeletal symptoms more frequently than before treatment discontinuation, e.g., myalgia, pain in extremity, arthralgia, bone pain, spinal pain or musculoskeletal pain.
In a Phase II clinical study with newly diagnosed adult patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase (N=190), musculoskeletal symptoms were reported within a year of Nilotinib discontinuation in 24.7% versus 16.3% within the previous year on nilotinib treatment.
Description of selected adverse reactions
Hepatitis B reactivation
Hepatitis B reactivation has been reported in association with BCR-ABL TKIs. Some cases resulted in acute hepatic failure or fulminant hepatitis leading to liver transplantation or a fatal outcome (see section 4.4).
The following adverse reactions have been derived from post-marketing experience with Nilotinib via spontaneous case reports, literature cases, expanded access programmes, and clinical studies other than the global registration trials. Since these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to nilotinib exposure.
Frequency very common: Growth retardation has been documented in paediatric patients treated with nilotinib.
Frequency rare: Cases of tumour lysis syndrome have been reported in patients treated with nilotinib.
The safety of nilotinib in paediatric patients (from 2 to <18 years of age) with Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in chronic phase (n=69) has been investigated in two studies (see section 5.1). In paediatric patients, the frequency, type and severity of adverse reactions observed have been generally consistent with those observed in adults, with the exception of the laboratory abnormalities hyperbilirubinaemia (Grade 3/4: 13.0%) and transaminase elevation (AST Grade 3/4: 1.4%, ALT Grade 3/4: 8.7%) which were reported at a higher frequency than in adult patients. Bilirubin and hepatic transaminase levels should be monitored during treatment (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).
Growth retardation in paediatric population
In an interim analysis in a study in the CML paediatric population, with a median exposure of 33 months in each cohort (newly diagnosed and resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML-CP), growth retardation (crossing two main percentile lines from baseline) has been documented in 12.1%. Close monitoring of growth in paediatric patients under nilotinib treatment is recommended (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product.
Isolated reports of intentional overdose with nilotinib were reported, where an unspecified number of Nilotinib hard capsules were ingested in combination with alcohol and other medicinal products. Events included neutropenia, vomiting and drowsiness. No ECG changes or hepatotoxicity were reported. Outcomes were reported as recovered.
In the event of overdose, the patient should be observed and appropriate supportive treatment given.
- PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, protein kinase inhibitors.
Mechanism of action
Nilotinib is a potent inhibitor of the ABL tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein both in cell lines and in primary Philadelphia-chromosome positive leukaemia cells. The substance binds with high affinity to the ATP-binding site in such a manner that it is a potent inhibitor of wild-type BCR-ABL and maintains activity against 32/33 imatinib-resistant mutant forms of BCR-ABL. As a consequence of this biochemical activity, nilotinib selectively inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis in cell lines and in primary Philadelphia-chromosome positive leukaemia cells from CML patients. In murine models of CML, as a single agent nilotinib reduces tumour burden and prolongs survival following oral administration.
Nilotinib has little or no effect against the majority of other protein kinases examined, including Src, except for the PDGF, KIT and Ephrin receptor kinases, which it inhibits at concentrations within the range achieved following oral administration at therapeutic doses recommended for the treatment of CML (see Table 6).
Table 6 Kinase profile of nilotinib (phosphorylation IC50?nM)
Clinical studies in newly diagnosed CML in chronic phase
An open-label, multicentre, randomised Phase III study was conducted to determine the efficacy of nilotinib versus imatinib in 846 adult patients with cytogenetically confirmed newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome positive CML in the chronic phase. Patients were within six months of diagnosis and were previously untreated, with the exception of hydroxyurea and/or anagrelide. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive either nilotinib 300 mg twice daily (n=282), nilotinib 400 mg twice daily (n=281) or imatinib 400 mg once daily (n=283). Randomisation was stratified by Sokal risk score at the time of diagnosis.
Baseline characteristics were well balanced between the three treatment arms. Median age was 47 years in both nilotinib arms and 46 years in the imatinib arm, with 12.8%, 10.0% and 12.4% of patients were ?65 years of age in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib 400 mg once daily treatment arms, respectively. There were slightly more male than female patients (56.0%, 62.3% and 55.8%, in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, 400 mg twice daily and imatinib 400 mg once daily arm, respectively). More than 60% of all patients were Caucasian and 25% of all patients were Asian.
The primary data analysis time point was when all 846 patients completed 12 months of treatment (or discontinued earlier). Subsequent analyses reflect when patients completed 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months of treatment (or discontinued earlier). The median time on treatment was approximately 70 months in the nilotinib treatment groups and 64 months in the imatinib group. The median actual dose intensity was 593 mg/day for nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, 772 mg/day for nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 400 mg/day for imatinib 400 mg once daily. This study is ongoing.
The primary efficacy endpoint was major molecular response (MMR) at 12 months. MMR was defined as ?0.1% BCR-ABL/ABL% by international scale (IS) measured by RQvPCR, which corresponds to a ?3 log reduction of BCR-ABL transcript from standardised baseline. The MMR rate at 12 months was statistically significantly higher for nilotinib 300 mg twice daily compared to imatinib 400 mg once daily (44.3% versus 22.3%, p<0.0001). The rate of MMR at 12 months, was also statistically significantly higher for nilotinib 400 mg twice daily compared to imatinib 400 mg once daily (42.7% versus 22.3%, p<0.0001).
The rates of MMR at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 8.9%, 33.0%, 43.3% and 44.3% for nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, 5.0%, 29.5%, 38.1% and 42.7% for nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 0.7%, 12.0%, 18.0% and 22.3% for imatinib 400 mg once daily.
The MMR rate at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months is presented in Table 7.
Table 7 MMR rate
300 mg twice daily
400 mg twice daily
400 mg once daily
|MMR at 12 months|
|Response (95% CI)||44.31?(38.4; 50.3)||42.71?(36.8; 48.7)||22.3 (17.6; 27.6)|
|MMR at 24 months|
|Response (95% CI)||61.71?(55.8; 67.4)||59.11?(53.1; 64.9)||37.5 (31.8; 43.4)|
|MMR at 36 months2|
|Response (95% CI)||58.51?(52.5; 64.3)||57.31?(51.3; 63.2)||38.5 (32.8; 44.5)|
|MMR at 48 months3|
|Response (95% CI)||59.91?(54.0; 65.7)||55.2 (49.1; 61.1)||43.8 (38.0; 49.8)|
|MMR at 60 months4|
|Response (95% CI)||62.8 (56.8; 68.4)||61.2 (55.2; 66.9)||49.1 (43.2; 55.1)|
|MMR at 72 months5|
|Response (95% CI)||52.5 (46.5; 58.4)||57.7 (51.6; 63.5)||41.7 (35.9; 47.7)|
1?Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test p-value for response rate (vs. imatinib 400 mg) <0.0001
2?Only patients who were in MMR at a specific time point are included as responders for that time point. A total of 199 (35.2%) of all patients were not evaluable for MMR at 36 months (87 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group and 112 in the imatinib group) due to missing/unevaluable PCR assessments (n=17), atypical transcripts at baseline (n=7), or discontinuation prior to the 36-month time point (n=175).
3?Only patients who were in MMR at a specific time point are included as responders for that time point. A total of 305 (36.1%) of all patients were not evaluable for MMR at 48 months (98 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 88 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 119 in the imatinib group) due to missing/unevaluable PCR assessments (n=18), atypical transcripts at baseline (n=8), or discontinuation prior to the 48-month time point (n=279).
4?Only patients who were in MMR at a specific time point are included as responders for that time point. A total of 322 (38.1%) of all patients were not evaluable for MMR at 60 months (99 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 93 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 130 in the imatinib group) due to missing/unevaluable PCR assessments (n=9), atypical transcripts at baseline (n=8) or discontinuation prior to the 60-month time point (n=305).
5?Only patients who were in MMR at a specific time point are included as responders for that time point. A total of 395 (46.7%) of all patients were not evaluable for MMR at 72 months (130 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 110 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 155 in the imatinib group) due to missing/unevaluable PCR assessments (n=25), atypical transcripts at baseline (n=8) or discontinuation prior to the 72-month time point (n=362).
MMR rates by different time points (including patients who achieved MMR at or before those time points as responders) are presented in the cumulative incidence of MMR (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 Cumulative incidence of MMR
For all Sokal risk groups, the MMR rates at all time points remained consistently higher in the two nilotinib groups than in the imatinib group.
In a retrospective analysis, 91% (234/258) of patients on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily achieved BCR-ABL levels ?10% at 3 months of treatment compared to 67% (176/264) of patients on imatinib 400 mg once daily. Patients with BCR-ABL levels ?10% at 3 months of treatment show a greater overall survival at 72 months compared to those who did not achieve this molecular response level (94.5% vs. 77.1% respectively [p=0.0005]).
Based on the Kaplan-Meier analysis of time to first MMR the probability of achieving MMR at different time points was higher for both nilotinib at 300 mg and 400 mg twice daily compared to imatinib 400 mg once daily (HR=2.17 and stratified log-rank p<0.0001 between nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and imatinib 400 mg once daily, HR=1.88 and stratified log-rank p<0.0001 between nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib 400 mg once daily).
The proportion of patients who had a molecular response of ?0.01% and ?0.0032% by IS at different time points are presented in Table 8 and the proportion of patients who had a molecular response of ?0.01% and ?0.0032% by IS by different time points are presented in Figures 2 and 3. Molecular responses of ?0.01% and ?0.0032% by IS correspond to a ?4 log reduction and ?4.5 log reduction, respectively, of BCR-ABL transcripts from a standardised baseline.
Table 8 Proportions of patients who had molecular response of ?0.01% (4 log reduction) and ?0.0032% (4.5 log reduction)
300 mg twice daily
400 mg twice daily
400 mg once daily
|At 12 months||11.7||4.3||8.5||4.6||3.9||0.4|
|At 24 months||24.5||12.4||22.1||7.8||10.2||2.8|
|At 36 months||29.4||13.8||23.8||12.1||14.1||8.1|
|At 48 months||33.0||16.3||29.9||17.1||19.8||10.2|
|At 60 months||47.9||32.3||43.4||29.5||31.1||19.8|
|At 72 months||44.3||31.2||45.2||28.8||27.2||18.0|
Figure 2 Cumulative incidence of molecular response of ?0.01% (4-log reduction)
Figure 3 Cumulative incidence of molecular response of ?0.0032% (4.5 log reduction)
Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates of the duration of first MMR, the proportions of patients who were maintaining response for 72 months among patients who achieved MMR were 92.5% (95% CI: 88.6-96.4%) in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 92.2% (95% CI: 88.5-95.9%) in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 88.0% (95% CI: 83.0-93.1%) in the imatinib 400 mg once daily group.
Complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was defined as 0% Ph+ metaphases in the bone marrow based on a minimum of 20 metaphases evaluated. Best CCyR rate by 12 months (including patients who achieved CCyR at or before the 12 month time point as responders) was statistically higher for both nilotinib 300 mg and 400 mg twice daily compared to imatinib 400 mg once daily, see Table 9.
CCyR rate by 24 months (includes patients who achieved CCyR at or before the 24 month time point as responders) was statistically higher for both the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and 400 mg twice daily groups compared to the imatinib 400 mg once daily group.
Table 9 Best CCyR rate
300 mg twice daily
400 mg twice daily
400 mg once daily
|By 12 months|
|Response (95% CI)||80.1 (75.0; 84.6)||77.9 (72.6; 82.6)||65.0 (59.2; 70.6)|
|CMH test p-value for response rate (versus imatinib 400 mg once daily)||<0.0001||0.0005|
|By 24 months|
|Response (95% CI)||86.9 (82.4; 90.6)||84.7 (79.9; 88.7)||77.0 (71.7; 81.8)|
|CMH test p-value for response rate (versus imatinib 400 mg once daily)||0.0018||0.0160|
Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the proportions of patients who were maintaining response for 72 months among patients who achieved CCyR were 99.1% (95% CI: 97.9-100%) in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 98.7% (95% CI: 97.1-100%) in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 97.0% (95% CI: 94.7-99.4%) in the imatinib 400 mg once daily group.
Progression to accelerated phase (AP) or blast crisis (BC) on treatment is defined as the time from the date of randomisation to the first documented disease progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis or CML-related death. Progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis on treatment was observed in a total of 17 patients: 2 patients on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, 3 patients on nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 12 patients on imatinib 400 mg once daily. The estimated rates of patients free from progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis at 72 months were 99.3%, 98.7% and 95.2%, respectively (HR=0.1599 and stratified log-rank p=0.0059 between nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and imatinib once daily, HR=0.2457 and stratified log-rank p=0.0185 between nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib once daily). No new events of progressions to AP/BC were reported on-treatment since the 2-year analysis.
Including clonal evolution as a criterion for progression, a total of 25 patients progressed to accelerated phase or blast crisis on treatment by the cut-off date (3 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 5 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 17 in the imatinib 400 mg once daily group). The estimated rates of patients free from progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis including clonal evolution at 72 months were 98.7%, 97.9% and 93.2%, respectively (HR=0.1626 and stratified log-rank p=0.0009 between nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and imatinib once daily, HR=0.2848 and stratified log-rank p=0.0085 between nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib once daily).
A total of 55 patients died during treatment or during the follow-up after discontinuation of treatment. (21 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 11 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 23 in the imatinib 400 mg once daily group). Twenty-six (26) of these 55 deaths were related to CML (6 in the nilotinib 300 mg twice daily group, 4 in the nilotinib 400 mg twice daily group and 16 in the imatinib 400 mg once daily group). The estimated rates of patients alive at 72 months were 91.6%, 95.8% and 91.4%, respectively (HR=0.8934 and stratified log-rank p=0.7085 between nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and imatinib, HR=0.4632 and stratified log-rank p=0.0314 between nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib). Considering only CML-related deaths as events, the estimated rates of overall survival at 72 months were 97.7%, 98.5% and 93.9%, respectively (HR=0.3694 and stratified log-rank p=0.0302 between nilotinib 300 mg twice daily and imatinib, HR=0.2433 and stratified log-rank p=0.0061 between nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and imatinib).
Treatment discontinuation in adult Ph+ CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib as first-line therapy and who have achieved a sustained deep molecular response
In an open-label, single-arm study, 215 adult patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase treated with nilotinib in first-line for ?2 years who achieved MR4.5 as measured with the MolecularMD MRDx BCR-ABL test were enrolled to continue nilotinib treatment for additional 52 weeks (nilotinib consolidation phase). 190 of 215 patients (88.4%) entered the TFR phase after achieving a sustained deep molecular response during the consolidation phase, defined by the following criteria:
– the 4 last quarterly assessments (taken every 12 weeks) were at least MR4.0 (BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.01% IS), and maintained for one year
– the last assessment being MR4.5 (BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.0032% IS)
– no more than two assessments falling between MR4.0 and MR4.5 (0.0032% IS < BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.01% IS).
The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients in MMR at 48 weeks after starting the TFR phase (considering any patient who required re-initiation of treatment as non-responder). Of the 190 patients who entered the TFR phase, 98 patients (51.6% [95% CI: 44.2, 58.9]) were in MMR at 48 weeks.
Eighty-eight patients (46.3%) discontinued the TFR phase due to loss of MMR, and 1 (0.5%), 1 (0.5%), and 3 patients (1.6%) due to death from unknown cause, physician decision and subject decision, respectively. Among these 88 patients, 86 patients restarted nilotinib treatment and 2 patients permanently discontinued the study. Eighty-five of these 86 patients (98.8%) regained MMR, (one patient discontinued study permanently due to subject decision) and 76 patients (88.4%) regained MR4.5 by the time of the cut-off date.
The Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimated median time on nilotinib treatment to regain MMR and MR4.5 was 7.9 weeks (95% CI: 5.1, 8.0) and 13.1 weeks (95% CI: 12.3, 15.7), respectively. The KM estimated MMR and MR4.5 rates at 24 weeks of re-initiation were 98.8% (95% CI: 94.2, 99.9) and 90.9% (95% CI: 83.2, 96.0), respectively.
The KM estimate of median treatment-free survival (TFS) has not yet been reached (Figure 4); 99 of 190 patients (52.1%) did not have a TFS event.
Figure 4 Kaplan-Meier estimate of treatment-free survival after start of TFR (full analysis set)
The safety and efficacy of nilotinib in paediatric patients with Ph+ CML in chronic phase have been investigated in two studies. A total of 69 paediatric patients (from 2 to <18 years of age) with either newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase (n=25) or imatinib/dasatinib resistant or imatinib-intolerant Ph+ CML in chronic phase (n=44) received nilotinib treatment at a dose of 230 mg/m2?twice daily, rounded to the nearest 50 mg dose (to a maximum single dose of 400 mg).
In the pooled CML patient population, the median actual dose intensity was 435.5 mg/m2/day (range: 149 to 517 mg/m2/day), and the median relative dose intensity was 94.7% (range: 32 to 112%). Forty patients (58.0%) had relative dose intensity superior to 90%. The median time on treatment with nilotinib was 13.80 months (range: 0.7-30.9 months).
In the resistant or intolerant CML patients, the major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.1% IS) rate was 40.9% (95% CI: 26.3, 56.8) at 12 cycles, with 18 patients being in MMR. In the newly diagnosed CML patients, the MMR rate was 60.0% (95% CI: 38.7, 78.9) at 12 cycles, with 15 patients achieving MMR. In resistant or intolerant CML patients, the cumulative MMR rate was 47.7% by cycle 12. In newly diagnosed CML patients, the cumulative MMR rate was 64.0% by cycle 12.
Among the 21 resistant or intolerant CML patients who were in MMR at any time on treatment, the median time to first MMR was 2.76 months (95% CI: 0.03, 5.55). For the 17 newly diagnosed CML patients who achieved MMR, the median time to first MMR was 5.55 months (95% CI: 5.52, 5.75).
Among resistant or intolerant CML patients, the percentage of patients who achieved BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.01% IS (MR4.0) by the cut-off date was 11.4%, while 4.5% of the patients achieved BCR-ABL/ABL ?0.0032% IS (MR4.5). Among newly diagnosed patients, the percentage of patients who achieved MR4.0 was 32%, while 28.0% achieved MR4.5.
None of the 21 resistant or intolerant CML patients who were in MMR on treatment, had confirmed loss of MMR. Among the 17 newly diagnosed CML patients who achieved MMR, one patient had confirmed loss of MMR (the patient lost CHR due to an increase in basophil count, however, did not progress to AP/BC).
One resistant or intolerant CML patient progressed to AP/BC after about 10 months on treatment.
No deaths were reported on treatment or after treatment discontinuation in both studies.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Peak concentrations of nilotinib are reached 3 hours after oral administration. Nilotinib absorption following oral administration was approximately 30%. The absolute bioavailability of nilotinib has not been determined. As compared to an oral drink solution (pH of 1.2 to 1.3), relative bioavailability of nilotinib capsule is approximately 50%. In healthy volunteers, Cmax?and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) of nilotinib are increased by 112% and 82%, respectively, compared to fasting conditions when Nilotinib is given with food. Administration of Nilotinib 30 minutes or 2 hours after food increased bioavailability of nilotinib by 29% or 15%, respectively (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 4.5).
Nilotinib absorption (relative bioavailability) might be reduced by approximately 48% and 22% in patients with total gastrectomy and partial gastrectomy, respectively.
The blood-to-plasma ratio of nilotinib is 0.71. Plasma protein binding is approximately 98% on the basis of?in vitro?experiments.
Main metabolic pathways identified in healthy subjects are oxidation and hydroxylation. Nilotinib is the main circulating component in the serum. None of the metabolites contribute significantly to the pharmacological activity of nilotinib. Nilotinib is primarily metabolised by CYP3A4, with possible minor contribution from CYP2C8.
After a single dose of radiolabelled nilotinib in healthy subjects, more than 90% of the dose was eliminated within 7 days, mainly in faeces (94% of the dose). Unchanged nilotinib accounted for 69% of the dose.
The apparent elimination half-life estimated from the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics with daily dosing was approximately 17 hours. Inter-patient variability in nilotinib pharmacokinetics was moderate to high.
Steady-state nilotinib exposure was dose-dependent, with less than dose-proportional increases in systemic exposure at dose levels higher than 400 mg given as once-daily dosing. Daily systemic exposure to nilotinib with 400 mg twice-daily dosing at steady state was 35% higher than with 800 mg once-daily dosing. Systemic exposure (AUC) of nilotinib at steady state at a dose level of 400 mg twice daily was approximately 13.4% higher than at a dose level of 300 mg twice daily. The average nilotinib trough and peak concentrations over 12 months were approximately 15.7% and 14.8% higher following 400 mg twice daily dosing compared to 300 mg twice daily. There was no relevant increase in exposure to nilotinib when the dose was increased from 400 mg twice daily to 600 mg twice daily.
Steady-state conditions were essentially achieved by day 8. An increase in serum exposure to nilotinib between the first dose and steady state was approximately 2-fold for daily dosing and 3.8-fold for twice-daily dosing.
Single-dose administration of 400 mg nilotinib, using 2 hard capsules of 200 mg whereby the content of each hard capsule was dispersed in one teaspoon of apple sauce, was shown to be bioequivalent with a single-dose administration of 2 intact hard capsules of 200 mg.
Following administration of nilotinib in paediatric patients at 230 mg/m2?twice daily, rounded to the nearest 50 mg dose (to a maximum single dose of 400 mg), steady-state exposure and clearance of nilotinib were found to be similar (within 2-fold) to adult patients treated with 400 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic exposure of nilotinib following a single or multiple doses appeared to be comparable between paediatric patients from 2 years to <10 years and from ?10 years to <18 years.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Nilotinib has been evaluated in safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, phototoxicity and carcinogenicity (rats and mice) studies.
Safety pharmacology studies
Nilotinib did not have effects on CNS or respiratory functions.?In vitro?cardiac safety studies demonstrated a preclinical signal for QT prolongation, based upon block of hERG currents and prolongation of the action potential duration in isolated rabbit hearts by nilotinib. No effects were seen in ECG measurements in dogs or monkeys treated for up to 39 weeks or in a special telemetry study in dogs.
Repeated-dose toxicity studies
Repeated-dose toxicity studies in dogs of up to 4 weeks’ duration and in cynomolgus monkeys of up to 9 months’ duration revealed the liver as the primary target organ of toxicity of nilotinib. Alterations included increased alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and histopathology findings (mainly sinusoidal cell or Kupffer cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy, bile duct hyperplasia and periportal fibrosis). In general the changes in clinical chemistry were fully reversible after a four-week recovery period and the histological alterations showed partial reversibility. Exposures at the lowest dose levels at which the liver effects were seen were lower than the exposure in humans at a dose of 800 mg/day. Only minor liver alterations were seen in mice or rats treated for up to 26 weeks. Mainly reversible increases in cholesterol levels were seen in rats, dogs and monkeys.
Genotoxicity studies in bacterial?in vitro?systems and in mammalian?in vitro?and?in vivo?systems with and without metabolic activation did not reveal any evidence for a mutagenic potential of nilotinib.
In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, the major target organ for non-neoplastic lesions was the uterus (dilatation, vascular ectasia, endothelial cell hyperplasia, inflammation and/or epithelial hyperplasia). There was no evidence of carcinogenicity upon administration of nilotinib at 5, 15 and 40 mg/kg/day. Exposures (in terms of AUC) at the highest dose level represented approximately 2x to 3x human daily steady-state exposure (based on AUC) to nilotinib at the dose of 800 mg/day.
In the 26-week Tg.rasH2 mouse carcinogenicity study, in which nilotinib was administered at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, skin papillomas/carcinomas were detected at 300 mg/kg, representing approximately 30 to 40 times (based on AUC) the human exposure at the maximum approved dose of 800 mg/day (administered as 400 mg twice daily). The No-Observed-Effect-Level for the skin neoplastic lesions was 100 mg/kg/day, representing approximately 10 to 20 times the human exposure at the maximum approved dose of 800 mg/day (administered as 400 mg twice daily). The major target organs for non-neoplastic lesions were the skin (epidermal hyperplasia), the growing teeth (degeneration/atrophy of the enamel organ of upper incisors and inflammation of the gingiva/odontogenic epithelium of incisors) and the thymus (increased incidence and/or severity of decreased lymphocytes).
Reproductive toxicity and fertility studies
Nilotinib did not induce teratogenicity, but did show embryo- and foetotoxicity at doses that also showed maternal toxicity. Increased post-implantation loss was observed in both the fertility study, which involved treatment of both males and females, and the embryotoxicity study, which involved treatment of females. Embryo-lethality and foetal effects (mainly decreased foetal weights, premature fusion of the facial bones (fused maxilla/zygomatic) visceral and skeletal variations) in rats and increased resorption of foetuses and skeletal variations in rabbits were present in the embryotoxicity studies. In a pre- and postnatal development study in rats, maternal exposure to nilotinib caused reduced pup body weight with associated changes in physical development parameters as well as reduced mating and fertility indices in the offspring. Exposure to nilotinib in females at No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Levels was generally less or equal to that in humans at 800 mg/day.
No effects on sperm count/motility or on fertility were noted in male and female rats up to the highest tested dose, approximately 5 times the recommended dosage for humans.
Juvenile animal studies
In a juvenile development study, nilotinib was administered via oral gavage to juvenile rats from the first week post partum through young adult (day 70 post partum) at doses of 2, 6 and 20 mg/kg/day. Besides standard study parameters, evaluations of developmental landmarks, CNS effects, mating and fertility were performed. Based on a reduction in body weight in both genders and a delayed preputial separation in males (which may be associated with the reduction in weight), the No-Observed-Effect-Level in juvenile rats was considered to be 6 mg/kg/day. The juvenile animals did not exert increased sensitivity to nilotinib relative to adults. In addition, the toxicity profile in juvenile rats was comparable to that observed in adult rats.
Nilotinib was shown to absorb light in the UV-B and UV-A range, is distributed into the skin and showed a phototoxic potential?in vitro, but no effects have been observed?in vivo. Therefore the risk that nilotinib causes photosensitisation in patients is considered very low.
- PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS
6.1 List of excipients
Capsule content: Lactose monohydrate, Crospovidone Type A, Poloxamer, Colloidal anhydrous silica
Capsule shell: Gelatin, Titanium dioxide.
Printing ink: Shellac, Propylene glycol, Dehydrated ethanol, Isopropylalcohol, Ammonium hydroxide.
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 30?C.
Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Tablets are packed in Bottle.
Pack Size of: 7, 14, 28, 30, 50, 60, 90, 100 or 200 Tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
?7.Manufactured in India By:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED
at SURVEY NO.188/1 TO 189/1,190/1 TO 4,
ATHIYAWAD, DABHEL, DAMAN- 396210 (INDIA).
Nilotinib Capsules 50mg/150mg/200mg Taj Pharma
Package leaflet: Information for the user
Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.
- Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
- If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
- This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
- If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet. See section 4.
What is in this leaflet
- What Nilotinib is and what it is used for
- What you need to know before you take Nilotinib
- How to take Nilotinib
- Possible side effects
- How to store Nilotinib
- Contents of the pack and other information
- WHAT NILOTINIB IS AND WHAT IT IS USED FOR
What Nilotinib is
Nilotinib is a medicine containing an active substance called nilotinib.
What Nilotinib is used for
Nilotinib is used to treat a type of leukaemia called Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (Ph-positive CML). CML is a cancer of the blood which makes the body produce too many abnormal white blood cells.
Nilotinib is used in adult and paediatric patients with newly diagnosed CML or in patients with CML who are no longer benefiting from previous treatment including imatinib. It is also used in adult and paediatric patients who experienced serious side effects with previous treatment and are not able to continue taking it.
How Nilotinib works
In patients with CML, a change in DNA (genetic material) triggers a signal that tells the body to produce abnormal white blood cells. Nilotinib blocks this signal, and thus stops the production of these cells.
Monitoring during Nilotinib treatment
Regular tests, including blood tests, will be performed during treatment. These tests will monitor:
- the amount of blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets) in the body to see how Nilotinib is tolerated.
- pancreas and liver function in the body to see how Nilotinib is tolerated.
- the electrolytes in the body (potassium, magnesium). These are important in the functioning of the heart.
- the level of sugar and fats in the blood.
The heart rate will also be checked using a machine that measures electrical activity of the heart (a test called an ?ECG?).
Your doctor will regularly evaluate your treatment and decide whether you should continue to take Nilotinib. If you are told to discontinue this medicine, your doctor will continue to monitor your CML and may tell you to re-start Nilotinib if your condition indicates that this is necessary.
If you have any questions about how Nilotinib works or why it has been prescribed for you or your child, ask your doctor.
- WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU TAKE NILOTINIB
Follow all the doctor?s instructions carefully. They may differ from the general information contained in this leaflet.
Do not take Nilotinib
- if you are allergic to nilotinib or any of the other ingredients of this medicine (listed in section 6).
If you think you may be allergic, tell your doctor before taking Nilotinib.
Warnings and precautions
Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking Nilotinib:
- if you have suffered prior cardiovascular events such as a heart attack, chest pain (angina), problems with the blood supply to your brain (stroke) or problems with the blood flow to your leg (claudication) or if you have risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes or problems with the level of fats in your blood (lipid disorders).
- if you have a heart disorder, such as an abnormal electrical signal called ?prolongation of the QT interval?.
- if you are being treated with medicines that affect the heart beat (anti-arrhythmics) or the liver (see Other medicines and Nilotinib).
- if you suffer from lack of potassium or magnesium.
- if you have a liver or pancreas disorder.
- if you have symptoms such as easy bruising, feeling tired or short of breath or have experienced repeated infections.
- if you have had a surgical procedure involving the removal of the entire stomach (total gastrectomy).
- if you have ever had or might now have a hepatitis B infection. This is because Nilotinib could cause hepatitis B to become active again, which can be fatal in some cases. Patients will be carefully checked by their doctor for signs of this infection before treatment is started.
If any of these apply to you or your child, tell your doctor.
During treatment with Nilotinib
- if you faint (loss of consciousness) or have an irregular heart beat while taking this medicine, tell your doctor immediately as this may be a sign of a serious heart condition. Prolongation of the QT interval or an irregular heart beat may lead to sudden death. Uncommon cases of sudden death have been reported in patients taking Nilotinib.
- if you have sudden heart palpitations, severe muscle weakness or paralysis, seizures or sudden changes in your thinking or level of alertness, tell your doctor immediately as this may be a sign of a fast breakdown of cancer cells called tumour lysis syndrome. Rare cases of tumour lysis syndrome have been reported in patients treated with Nilotinib.
- if you develop chest pain or discomfort, numbness or weakness, problems with walking or with your speech, pain, discolouration or a cool feeling in a limb, tell your doctor immediately as this may be a sign of a cardiovascular event. Serious cardiovascular events including problems with the blood flow to the leg (peripheral arterial occlusive disease), ischaemic heart disease and problems with the blood supply to the brain (ischaemic cerebrovascular disease) have been reported in patients taking Nilotinib. Your doctor should assess the level of fats (lipids) and sugar in your blood before initiating treatment with Nilotinib and during treatment.
- if you develop swelling of the feet or hands, generalised swelling or rapid weight gain tell your
doctor as these may be signs of severe fluid retention. Uncommon cases of severe fluid retention have been reported in patients treated with Nilotinib.
If you are the parent of a child who is being treated with Nilotinib, tell the doctor if any of the above conditions apply to your child.
Children and adolescents
Nilotinib is a treatment for children and adolescents with CML. There is no experience with the use of this medicine in children below 2 years of age. There is no experience with the use of Nilotinib in newly diagnosed children below 10 years of age and limited experience in patients below 6 years of age who are no longer benefiting from previous treatment for CML. The long-term effects of treating children with Nilotinib for long periods of time are not known.
Some children and adolescents taking Nilotinib may have slower than normal growth. The doctor will monitor growth at regular visits.
Other medicines and Nilotinib
Nilotinib may interfere with some other medicines.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines. This includes in particular:
- anti-arrhythmics ? used to treat irregular heart beat;
- chloroquine, halofantrine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin – medicines that may have an unwanted effect on the electrical activity of the heart;
- ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, clarithromycin, telithromycin ? used to treat infections;
- ritonavir ? a medicine from the class ? antiproteases? used to treat HIV;
- carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin ? used to treat epilepsy;
- rifampicin ? used to treat tuberculosis;
- John?s Wort ? a herbal product used to treat depression and other conditions (also known as
- midazolam ? used to relieve anxiety before surgery;
- alfentanil and fentanyl ? used to treat pain and as a sedative before or during surgery or medical procedures;
- cyclosporine, sirolimus and tacrolimus ? medicines that suppress the ?self-defence? ability of the body and fight infections and are commonly used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs such as the liver, heart and kidney;
- dihydroergotamine and ergotamine ? used to treat dementia;
- lovastatin, simvastatin ? used to treat high level of fats in blood;
- warfarin ? used to treat blood coagulation disorders (such as blood clots or thromboses);
- astemizole, terfenadine, cisapride, pimozide, quinidine, bepridil or ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine).
These medicines should be avoided during your treatment with Nilotinib. If you are taking any of these, your doctor might prescribe other alternative medicines.
In addition, tell your doctor or pharmacist before taking Nilotinib if you are taking any antacids, which are medicines against heartburn. These medicines need to be taken separately from Nilotinib:
- H2 blockers, which decrease the production of acid in the stomach. H2 blockers should be taken approximately 10 hours before and approximately 2 hours after you take Nilotinib;
- antacids such as those containing aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and simethicone, which neutralise high acidity in the stomach. These antacids should be taken approximately
2 hours before or approximately 2 hours after you take Nilotinib.
You should also tell your doctor if you are already taking Nilotinib and you are prescribed a new medicine that you have not taken previously during Nilotinib treatment.
Nilotinib with food and drink
Do not take Nilotinib with food. Food may enhance the absorption of Nilotinib and therefore increase the amount of Nilotinib in the blood, possibly to a harmful level. Do not drink grapefruit juice or eat grapefruit. It may increase the amount of Nilotinib in the blood, possibly to a harmful level.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
- Nilotinib is not recommended during pregnancy unless clearly necessary. If you are pregnant or think that you may be, tell your doctor who will discuss with you whether you can take this medicine during your pregnancy.
- Women who might get pregnant are advised to use highly effective contraception during treatment and for up to two weeks after ending treatment.
- Breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Nilotinib and for two weeks after the last dose. Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.
If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine.
Driving and using machines
If you experience side effects (such as dizziness or visual disorders) with a potential impact on the ability to safely drive or use any tools or machines after taking this medicine, you should refrain from these activities until the effect has disappeared.
Nilotinib contains lactose
This medicine contains lactose (also known as milk sugar). If you have been told by your doctor that you have an intolerance to some sugars, contact your doctor before taking this medicine.
- HOW TO TAKE NILOTINIB
Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.
How much Nilotinib to take
Use in adults
- The recommended dose is 800 mg per day. This dose is achieved by taking two hard capsules of 200 mg twice a day.
Use in children and adolescents
- The dose given to your child will depend on your child?s body weight and height. The doctor will calculate the correct dose to use and tell you which and how many capsules of Nilotinib to give to your child. The total daily dose you give to your child must not exceed 800 mg.
Your doctor may prescribe a lower dose depending on how you respond to treatment.
Older people (age 65 years and over)
Nilotinib can be used by people aged 65 years and over at the same dose as for other adults.
When to take Nilotinib
Take the hard capsules:
- twice a day (approximately every 12 hours);
- at least 2 hours after any food;
- then wait 1 hour before eating again.
If you have questions about when to take this medicine, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Taking Nilotinib at the same time each day will help you remember when to take your hard capsules.
How to take Nilotinib
- Swallow the hard capsules whole with water.
- Do not take any food together with the hard capsules.
- Do not open the hard capsules unless you are unable to swallow them. If so, you may sprinkle the content of each hard capsule in one teaspoon of apple sauce and take it immediately. Do not use more than one teaspoon of apple sauce for each hard capsule and do not use any food other than apple sauce.
How long to take Nilotinib
Continue taking Nilotinib every day for as long as your doctor tells you. This is a long-term treatment. Your doctor will regularly monitor your condition to check that the treatment is having the desired effect.
Your doctor may consider discontinuing your treatment with Nilotinib based on specific criteria.
If you have questions about how long to take Nilotinib, talk to your doctor.
If you take more Nilotinib than you should
If you have taken more Nilotinib than you should have, or if someone else accidentally takes your hard capsules, contact a doctor or hospital for advice straight away. Show them the pack of hard capsules and this package leaflet. Medical treatment may be necessary.
If you forget to take Nilotinib
If you miss a dose, take your next dose as scheduled. Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten hard capsule.
If you stop taking Nilotinib
Do not stop taking this medicine unless your doctor tells you to do so. Stopping Nilotinib without your doctor?s recommendation places you at risk for worsening of your disease which could have life-threatening consequences. Be sure to discuss with your doctor, nurse, and/or pharmacist if you are considering stopping Nilotinib.
If your doctor recommends that you discontinue treatment with Nilotinib
Your doctor will regularly evaluate your treatment with a specific diagnostic test and decide whether you should continue to take this medicine. If you are told to discontinue Nilotinib, your doctor will continue to carefully monitor your CML before, during and after you have discontinued Nilotinib and may tell you to re-start Nilotinib if your condition indicates that this is necessary.
If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
- POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. Most of the side effects are mild to moderate and will generally disappear after a few days to a few weeks of treatment.
Some side effects could be serious.
These side effects are very common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people), common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people), uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people) or have been reported with frequency not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
- rapid weight gain, swelling of hands, ankles, feet or face (signs of water retention)
- chest pain or discomfort, high or low blood pressure, irregular heart rhythm (fast or slow), palpitations (sensation of rapid heartbeat), fainting, blue discolouration of the lips, tongue or skin (signs of heart disorders)
- difficulty breathing or painful breathing, cough, wheezing with or without fever, swelling of the feet or legs (signs of lung disorders)
- fever, easy bruising or unexplained bleeding, severe or frequent infections, unexplained weakness (signs of blood disorders)
- weakness or paralysis of the limbs or face, difficulty speaking, severe headache, seeing, feeling or hearing things that are not there, changes in eyesight, loss of consciousness, confusion, disorientation, trembling, sensation of tingling, pain or numbness in fingers and toes (signs of nervous system disorders)
- thirst, dry skin, irritability, dark urine, decreased urine output, difficulty and pain when urinating, exaggerated sense of needing to urinate, blood in urine, abnormal urine colour (signs of kidney or urinary tract disorders)
- visual disturbances including blurred vision, double-vision or perceived flashes of light, decreased sharpness or loss of vision, blood in eye, increased sensitivity of the eyes to light, eye pain, redness, itching or irritation, dry eye, swelling or itching of the eyelids (signs of eye disorders)
- swelling and pain in one part of the body (signs of clotting within a vein)
- abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting of blood, black or bloody stools, constipation, heartburn, stomach acid reflux, swollen abdomen (signs of gastrointestinal disorders)
- severe upper (middle or left) abdominal pain (sign of pancreatitis)
- yellow skin and eyes, nausea, loss of appetite, dark-coloured urine (signs of liver disorders)
- painful red lumps, skin pain, skin reddening, peeling or blisters (signs of skin disorders)
- pain in joints and muscles (signs of musculoskeletal pain)
- excessive thirst, high urine output, increased appetite with weight loss, tiredness (signs of high level of sugar in the blood)
- fast heartbeat, bulging eyes, weight loss, swelling at the front of the neck (signs of overactive thyroid gland)
- weight gain, tiredness, hair loss, muscle weakness, feeling cold (signs of underactive thyroid gland)
- severe headache often accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light (signs of migraine)
- dizziness or spinning sensation (signs of vertigo)
- nausea, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, clouding of urine, tiredness and/or joint discomfort associated with abnormal results of blood tests (such as high levels of potassium, uric acid and phosphorous and low levels of calcium)
- pain, discomfort, weakness or cramping in the leg muscles, which may be due to decreased blood flow, ulcers on the legs or arms that heal slowly or not at all and noticeable changes in colour (blueness or paleness) or temperature (coolness) of the legs or arms, as these symptoms could be signs of artery blockage in the affected limb (leg or arm) and digits (toes or fingers)
- recurrence (reactivation) of hepatitis B infection when you have had hepatitis B in the past (a liver infection).
Some side effects are very common (may affect more than 1 in 10 people)
- tiredness, lack of energy
- muscle pain
- itching, rash
- abdominal pain
- hair loss
- musculoskeletal pain, muscle pain, pain in extremity, pain in joints, bone pain and spinal pain upon discontinuing treatment with Nilotinib
- slowing of growth in children and adolescents
Some side effects are common (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)
- upper respiratory tract infections
- stomach discomfort after meals, flatulence, swelling or bloating of the abdomen
- bone pain, pain in joints, muscle spasms, muscle weakness
- pain including back pain, neck pain and pain in extremity, pain or discomfort in the side of the body
- dry skin, acne, wart, decreased skin sensitivity, hives
- loss of appetite, disturbed sense of taste, weight decrease or increase
- insomnia, depression, anxiety
- night sweats, excessive sweating
- generally feeling unwell
- voice disorder
- nose bleed
- frequent urine output
Some side effects are uncommon (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
- increased skin sensitivity
- dry mouth, sore throat, mouth sores
- breast pain
- painful and swollen joints (gout)
- increased appetite
- attention disorder
- inability to achieve or maintain an erection
- breast enlargement in men
- flu-like symptoms
- pneumonia, bronchitis
- urinary tract infection
- herpes virus infection
- oral or vaginal thrush
- muscle and joint stiffness, joint swelling
- feeling body temperature change (including feeling hot, feeling cold)
- sensitive teeth
The following other side effects have been reported with frequency not known (cannot be estimated from the available data):
- allergy (hypersensitivity to Nilotinib)
- memory loss, disturbed mood
- skin cyst, thinning or thickening of the skin, thickening of the outermost layer of the skin, skin discolouration, fungal infection of the feet
- thickened patches of red/silver skin (signs of psoriasis)
- bleeding, tender or enlarged gums
- oral warts
- reddening and/or swelling and possibly peeling on the palms and soles (so called hand-foot syndrome)
- increased sensitivity of the skin to light
- difficulty hearing, ear pain, noises (ringing) in the ears
- joint inflammation
- urinary incontinence
- enterocolitis (inflammation of the bowel)
- haemorrhoids, anal abscess
- feeling of hardening in the breasts, heavy periods, nipple swelling
- symptoms of restless legs syndrome (an irresistable urge to move a part of the body, usually the leg, accompanied by uncomfortable sensations)
During Nilotinib treatment, you may also have some abnormal blood test results such as:
- low level of blood cells (white cells, red cells, platelets) or haemoglobin
- increase in the number of platelets or white cells, or specific types of white cells (eosinophils) in the blood
- high blood level of lipase or amylase (pancreas function)
- high blood level of bilirubin or liver enzymes (liver function)
- high blood level of creatinine or urea (kidney function)
- low or high blood level of insulin (a hormone regulating blood sugar level)
- low or high level of sugar, or high level of fats (including cholesterol) in the blood
- high blood level of parathyroid hormone (a hormone regulating calcium and phosphorus level)
- change in blood proteins (low level of globulins or presence of paraprotein)
- high blood levels of enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase or creatine phosphokinase)
- high blood level of potassium, calcium, phosphorus or uric acid
- low blood level of magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, or phosphorus
Reporting of side effects
If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.
- HOW TO STORE NILOTINIB
- Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children.
- Do not use this medicine after the expiry date which is stated on the carton and blister. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
- Do not store above 30?C.
- Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture.
- Do not use this medicine if you notice that the pack is damaged or shows signs of tampering.
- Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.
- Contents of the pack and other information
What Nilotinib contains
The active substance is nilotinib
a) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
b) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
c) Each Hard-gelatin Capsule contains:
Colour: Approved colours used in capsule shells
?7.Manufactured in India By:
TAJ PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED
at SURVEY NO.188/1 TO 189/1,190/1 TO 4,
ATHIYAWAD, DABHEL, DAMAN- 396210 (INDIA).